Friday, December 11, 2020

Flavor and aroma of coffee

The plant produces red cherry-like fruits containing two seeds, which, after being separated from the fruit pulp, are known as ‘green coffee’. When received, they are blended by manufacturers with green beans from other origins and roasted to achieve the characteristic flavor and color associated with coffee beverage of their brand.

There are two main species of coffee: arabica and robusta. As a general rule, arabica reveals a sweet, suave, fragrant, fruity, often acidic flavor. Conversely, Robusta is full-bodied, tonic, with a less pronounced aroma but stronger in caffeine.

Chemical composition of lipid, protein and carbohydrates in coffee contains the precursors function for developing flavor, aroma composition of the coffee beverage.

The polysaccharides which make up ~60 % of the green bean’s dry weight, consist of three major types: mannans or galactomannans, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and cellulose. In addition, there are small amounts of pectic polysaccharides. Carbohydrates have one of the crucial roles in coffee quality – forming aroma, flavor and color in the roasting process.

The lipid content in coffee grounds ranges from 10 to 17%. It has been reported that fatty acids composition in coffee is important to bring mouthfeel characteristics (body, texture) and essential aroma, flavor compounds to the coffee beverage. The aroma and flavor perceived in food are usually influenced by the type and concentration of lipids. Lipids also influence the mouth feel of several foods

The fatty acid (FA) fraction of triacylglycerols releases byproducts of oxidation, which are induced by temperature and mainly comprise aldehydes that react with intermediates of the Maillard reaction, providing additional flavor and aroma to the coffee.

Proteins are known to important flavor precursors in the coffee bean roasting process. It is because of protein-aroma compound or protein flavor compound binding. During roasting, proteins are denatured and fragmented. Proteins have a positive correlation with phenolic compounds and coffee mealnoidins, which can be explained by protein and phenolic compound involvement in coffee melanoidin formation.
Flavor and aroma of coffee

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